Common survey requisition items

Some preliminary requisition analysis has been undertaken for the Cadastral Survey Rules 2021 (CSR 2021). The following trends have been identified.

Common trends relating specifically to changes implemented by CSR 2021 include:

Pre-validation reporting

There are several CSR 2021 requisitions relating to automatic business rules that are easily identified prior to lodgement by running a pre-validation report and addressing potential issues identified. These warnings must be addressed by surveyors prior to lodgement.

C620 - Warning - Record of Survey does not include at least 1 measured vector to every new or old survey mark. These vectors must be captured to enable depiction on the survey diagram (CSR 2021 r89(a)).
Guidance relating to this rule is available in Depiction of vectors. An acceptable reason to submit a dataset without resolving this warning is where a trig observation is recorded without a distance. However, this needs to be clearly explained in the survey report. Further information is covered in Trig observations.

C621 - Warning – Record of Survey does not include measured vectors to at least 2 other new or old non-boundary marks for every new non-boundary mark that is not disturbed. These vectors must be captured to enable depiction on the survey diagram (r 89(b)).
Guidance relating to this rule is available in Depiction of vectors.

C623 - Warning – For non-primary parcels, the record of survey does not include at least 2 points on every non-primary parcel that are connected to a minimum of 2 underlying primary parcels points either through being coincident or by vectors. These vectors must be captured to enable depiction on the survey diagram (CSR 2021 r 89(g)(i)).
Non-primary parcels need to connect to at least two underlying primary parcel points either by being coincident or by non-boundary vectors, unless inaccurately determined. Refer to Figure 2 Depiction of vectors. Note that balance primary parcel boundary distances for easements coincident with part of a primary parcel boundary need to be captured as non-boundary lines. These balance primary parcel boundary distances are often required to be captured to meet the requirements of rule 89(g). Refer to Parcels without survey information CSD.

C697 - Warning – Survey class must be one of AD, BD, CD where a right line boundary vector intersects a water, water centre-line or irregular boundary.
Guidance relating to rule 30 and 69 which require the split accuracy class between bearings and distances (only where the vector intersects a water, water centre-line or irregular boundary) is available in Accuracy of water boundaries, Accuracy of irregular and water centre-line boundaries, Non-primary parcels over water as well as Accuracy class of water and irregular boundaries.
We note that some road parcels within Landonline may have been captured with an irregular boundary across the road. When undertaking a legalisation survey with a balance road parcel a warning will show in the pre-validation report where the boundary across the road has been captured as an irregular line. This is a situation where it is acceptable to submit the dataset with this warning remaining, although it should be covered in the survey report.

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Mark condition

Where a boundary point is ‘impracticable to mark’ the captured mark condition needs to reflect this (r 80(6)). This will allow Landonline to test whether a boundary point needs to be referenced.

Rule 80(7) now requires the record of survey whenever possible to identify the details for

  • marks searched for and not found
  • destroyed marks.

If it is not possible to include this information in the record of survey, then it must be addressed in the survey report (r 72(h))

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Mark description for PRMs

Rule 80(8) specifies that PRMs must describe the relationship to ground level and its situation. For example, ‘IT 0.1m down in berm’ or ‘IS flush in seal’. With the advancement of digital capture, this should be recorded in the mark description field of Landonline. There is no longer a need for finder diagrams, although they can still be included as a supporting document.

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Reinstated boundaries

Boundary reinstatement CSDs are not depicting the reinstated boundaries with a thick line type. Boundary vectors for reinstated boundaries must be captured in the ‘Nbdy’ layer, given a bearing and distance type of ‘Rein Adopted’ or ‘Rein Calculated’ and a class assigned. An example of what is expected is included in the guidance Boundary reinstatements.

Occupation information

The rules have changed slightly to require occupation information (in graphical form) for all new boundary points, not just on the existing primary parcel boundaries. Also, where there is no occupation the CSD must include a ‘No occupation’ annotation. (Rule 81)

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Easement Schedule

To streamline the land development process, we added the requirement for the title plan to include details of easements to be surrendered and covenants to be revoked. There are still a large number of requisitions asking for surveyors to account for all easements in the head title.

The Landonline automatic easement schedule provides functionality to record the surrender of easements and revocation of covenants recorded on the underlying title. Surveyors are encouraged to use this functionality, as it ensures the correct creating document number is pulled through from the underlying title and makes the cancellation process more efficient.

Note that easement schedules should now refer to burdened (r 93(2)(d)) and benefited land (r 93(2)(e)) to reflect the Land Transfer Act 2017. Due to the requirements of s 243 Resource Management Act 1991, the easement schedule template should continue to reference the servient and dominant tenement.

Ensure headings are consistent with rules 93(2)(a) and 94(2)(a), the captured data within the record of survey and the schedule correlate and that the existing easements from different creating documents are shown separately.

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Field information

There have been a number of requisitions for missing field information. Please ensure that you have included field information where your CSD includes survey measurements (r71(e)). 

Field information should include all measurements to non-boundary and boundary marks along with check measurements. Often vectors to boundary marks and check measurements are not included in the submitted field information.

Please ensure the survey mark name is added to the field information so the measured vector or coordinate can be related to the vectors in the CSD.

Where GNSS has been used the quality information such as epochs, horizontal precision and number of satellites should be recorded for each vector or observation.

Please ensure the survey report includes a description of the type of equipment and methods used (r72(o)).

Watch the short video below explaining the new guidance, common issues and examples of field information.

Hi everyone, I‘m Lyndon Telfer, Assistant Surveyor-General at Land Information New Zealand.  It’s been just over a year since the Cadastral Survey Rules 2021 came into effect, and we are now starting to see some trends and opportunities for improvement.  Today I want to talk about field information, as the quality of information we have been receiving needs improvement.

The requirement for field information is not new, and even the 2010 rules required you keep this information for a period of 7 years.  The only difference with the 2021 Rules is that it must be included in your CSD. 

The rules deliberately don’t specify the format and detail required for field information.  However, here are a few key principles to guide you.

At a high level, the field information must record all measurements to non-boundary and boundary marks recorded in your cadastral survey.  This means you must include check measurements. The information supplied should be able to be interpreted and easily understood by future surveyors.

We understand that a majority of field records are now recorded electronically and there are many different formatting and configuration options to use from the different equipment suppliers.

To help, we have recently updated our guidance to include tables listing the recommended information that should be included in your field information.

Here is the link.

The field information guidance is now displaying.

As I scroll down, you can see the 'Project details' table which includes the information such as job name, projection and the instrument details. The next table is the 'Measurement station details', which includes the instrument station set up details or the base station details. The final and most important table of information is the 'Measured Points details', which includes all relevant information related to the survey marks measured on your survey.  Each of the tables identify the different requirements depending on the type of equipment you are using. 

We have covered GNSS, Total Station and Other technology, which would cover equipment like a drone. 

Further down in the guidance, we've also included examples of electronic field information from Sokkia, South and Topcon to complement the existing example from Leica.

I recommend that following this video you go and have a look at the guidance to check you are supplying the right field information.

I now want to quickly touch on some of the common issues we have been seeing.

The first one is very easy to resolve, as a number of cadastral surveys have not been including any field information.  So, please ensure that you have included field information where your CSD includes survey measurements. 

I’ve already mentioned this earlier, but field information should include all measurements to non-boundary and boundary marks, along with check measurements.  Often vectors to boundary marks and check measurements are not included in the submitted field information.

One other area for improvement is ensuring the vectors or coordinates in your field notes have survey mark names that correspond with the cadastral survey.  If survey mark names aren’t included or updated, it is very difficult to match the measured vector or coordinate to vectors recorded in the cadastral survey dataset.

Where GNSS has been used, quality information such as the number of epochs, horizontal precision, number of satellites, date and time of measurement should all be recorded for each vector or observation.

I’ll now just quickly highlight some good examples of information we have been provided with. 

So in this example (DP 576930) I can clearly see the survey mark names have been updated which allows me to correlate the information with the survey diagram. It also includes the quality metrics such as date, time, epochs, number of satellites, estimated precision and PDOP. Now, I can see what mark names has been updated because the surveyor has deliberately added those mark names in blue. 

This is from the same survey and clearly shows the check measurements through the addition of a CHK to the end of the survey mark names.

This example from a total station shows the important information like face left and right, prism constants, along with date and time.

I’ll now quickly show one example of field information where there is room for improvement. 

This coordinate list is missing a large amount of key information such as survey mark names, the equipment type, datum, projection, base station details and the quality metrics I mentioned earlier.

Now where do you go for further help? Your first port of call should be the guidance on field information, and again I've included the link there on the screen. (

If you still have questions about field information, I encourage you to send those to the email address.  We regularly monitor the email address and will get back to you promptly.

Now, I hope you have found this video informative, and I really appreciate your time watching it.

Thank you.

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