Find out if you need consent to invest in New Zealand

Find out if you need to apply to the Overseas Investment Office for consent to purchase sensitive New Zealand assets.

You may need to apply to the Overseas Investment Office (OIO) for consent if you are an overseas person, or an associate of an overseas person, and you wish to acquire:

  • sensitive land or an interest in sensitive land (eg. by buying shares in a company that owns sensitive land), or
  • business assets worth more than $100 million, or
  • fishing quota or an interest in fishing quota.

Persons requiring consent

You are an overseas person if you are neither a New Zealand citizen, nor ordinarily resident in New Zealand. A company, a partnership, a joint venture or a trust can also be an overseas person. You will also require consent if you are an associate of an overseas person. You will require expert legal advice to know whether you or the entity that is going to acquire the sensitive assets is an overseas person or an associate of an overseas person.

Read more about seeking expert advice

Sensitive land requiring consent

Land will be sensitive if it comes within the types of land and area thresholds detailed in Part 1 of Schedule 1 of the Overseas Investment Act 2005. While determining whether land is sensitive can sometimes be straightforward, often significant legal and land expertise is required, particularly if there are nearby waterways.

The Minister of Finance issued a new Ministerial Directive Letter to the OIO. The letter, dated 8 December 2010, takes effect from 13 January 2011 and provides direction to the OIO, as regulator of the Overseas Investment Act 2005, about particular factors that are of greater relative importance when assessing investments in large areas of farmland.

The letter notes, as an indicative guide, that an overseas investment in farm land would be considered 'large' if it were to result in the relevant overseas person owning or controlling an area of land that is more than ten times the average farm size for the relevant farm type.

Average New Zealand Farm Size based on Farm Type (based on 2012 data)

Farm Type [1] Average farm size (Ha) [2] 10 times the average farm size (Ha)
Apple and Pear Growing 27.4 274.1
Beef Cattle Farming (Specialised) 111.4 1,113.5
Berry Fruit Growing 29.0 290.5
Citrus Fruit Growing 12.0 120.2
Dairy Cattle Farming 198.7 1,987.5
Deer Farming 254.2 2,542.1
Floriculture Production (Outdoors) 6.9 68.8
Floriculture Production (Under Cover) 7.1 70.8
Grain-Sheep or Grain-Beef Cattle Farming 269.4 2,694.4
Grape Growing 35.9 359.0
Horse Farming 21.3 213.5
Kiwifruit Growing 14.1 141.4
Nursery Production (Outdoors) 16.3 162.9
Nursery Production (Under Cover) 18.7 186.9
Olive Growing 9.5 95.3
Other Crop Growing n.e.c. [3] 59.0 589.9
Other Fruit and Tree Nut Growing 9.1 90.6
Other Grain Growing 205.4 2,053.9
Other Livestock Farming n.e.c. 21.1 210.5
Pig Farming 48.0 479.6
Poultry Farming (Eggs) 19.2 191.9
Sheep Farming (Specialised) 531.3 5,313.1
Sheep-Beef Cattle Farming 714.6 7,146.0
Stone Fruit Growing 16.6 166.4
Vegetable Growing (Outdoors) 87.6 875.9
Vegetable Growing (Under Cover) 3.8 38.3

These figures are published for the purpose of determining when an overseas investment in farm land would be considered ‘large’ as per paragraph 9 of the Ministerial Directive Letter of 8 December 2010.

[1] Farm types are classified according to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification 2006 (ANZSIC06).
See Farm Types Used in Agricultural Production Statistics: A comparison between ANZSIC96 and ANZSIC06 classifications

[2] Based on the 2012 Agricultural Production Census data from Statistics New Zealand

[3] n.e.c. means “not elsewhere classified”

Obtaining consent

Applicants for consent must satisfy a number of criteria, including the core “investor test” criteria. In addition, consent to acquire sensitive land will only be granted if:

  • the transaction will, or is likely to, benefit New Zealand, or alternatively
  • the relevant overseas person intends to reside in New Zealand indefinitely.

Some types of land (such as farm land) also have specific consent criteria.

Applicants for consent to acquire fishing quota must satisfy a “national interest” test.

Next step

Determining if consent is required and applying for consent generally requires significant legal and land expertise. Seek assistance from a professional adviser as early as possible to help ensure a smooth transaction.

For help finding and engaging a lawyer in New Zealand, please refer to our guidance. You can also browse decisions to find lawyers with experience in overseas investment applications.

The OIO cannot give legal advice or consider draft applications.


The OIO administers the Overseas Investment Act 2005 and the Overseas Investment Regulations. Regulation 33 of the Regulations outlines certain transactions that are exempt from the consent requirement. The OIO also administers sections 56 to 57J of the Fisheries Act 1996 relating to acquiring fishing quota.


This website provides general information only. The OIO and LINZ do not assume any responsibility for giving legal or other professional advice and disclaim any liability arising from the use of the information. If you require legal or other expert advice you should seek assistance from a professional adviser.

Last Updated: 16 February 2017