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Capture and depiction

Guidance on meeting the requirements of Part 7 of the Cadastral Survey Rules 2021 (CSR 2021), including the capture and depiction requirements for record of survey, title plan, survey and title diagrams and associated Landonline capture.


The Cadastral Survey Rules 2021 (CSR 2021) specify the information that must be included and depicted in a cadastral survey dataset (CSD).

The Standard for lodgement of cadastral survey datasets - LINZS70000 (Lodgement Standard) specifies the CSD data that must be digitally captured in Landonline.

Depiction is the graphical representation of CSD data in a form that can be visually interpreted. Examples of depiction in a CSD include plans, diagrams, images, and tables. Depicted data in a CSD must be clear, unambiguous, and legible when viewed or printed at an appropriate scale.

This article includes guidance on meeting the capture and depiction requirements of the CSR 2021 and Lodgement Standard that is common to all dataset types and purposes. More detailed guidance on topic specific capture and depiction elements such as water boundaries, height-limited boundaries, unit title boundaries and so forth can be found in the related integrated guidance on those topics.

Refer to Dataset specific capture and depiction.

Survey information and header

Landonline requires CSD summary information that clearly identifies:

  • the land district a survey is in
  • the type and purpose of a survey
  • a description of the land under survey
  • the licenced cadastral surveyor taking responsibility of the survey.

In addition, the survey header includes survey related information such as:

  • the accuracy class of boundaries
  • the meridional circuit or horizontal datum the CSD is in terms of
  • the vertical datum the CSD is in terms of
  • a list of referenced surveys used as source information
  • bearing corrections applied to referenced surveys.

Further information on each these topics is provided in the following sections.

For further information on land districts see:

Land registration districts.

Survey purpose

The survey purpose must be captured from the available options in Landonline. In addition, the CSD survey report must include information on the purpose for which the survey was conducted including reference to the enactments relevant to achieving the purpose where it is not otherwise clear (r 72(a)).

The captured survey purpose should be consistent with the purpose described in the survey report.

Refer also to the Content of a CSD guideline about reporting on general information.

Type of dataset

All datasets that include captured non-boundary survey work must be captured with a dataset type of ‘Survey’. In this context non-boundary survey work includes:

  • captured non-boundary marks and related vectors
  • referencing of boundary marks and points as required by rule 31.

Parcels without survey information CSD

A CSD that is not required to capture non-boundary marks and related vectors may be captured with a dataset type of ‘Parcels without survey information’ (PWSI). In this instance captured boundary and non-boundary vectors must only be between new and existing boundary marks and points.

Easement only and covenant CSDs are common examples of a PWSI dataset type where non-primary parcels and boundaries are captured without supporting survey work.

A dataset type of PWSI can also be used for a CSD that includes new primary parcels provided none of the boundary marks or points are required to be defined by survey in accordance with rule 13, referenced by rule 31 or required to be marked by rule 35.

Non-boundary information not required to be captured, can be submitted as field notes or other supporting documents such as calculation sheets or traverse sheets. This can provide useful information in support of the survey definition that would otherwise be lost if not captured.

Refer to additional information about PWSI CSDs.

Computed/compiled plans

Historically, a compiled or computed plan was defined as a plan prepared from existing survey records. It was a CSD prepared without any field information.

This CSD type was used for all classes of survey where the boundaries of a new parcel were adopted boundaries that already existed in the cadastre or were calculated from existing points in the cadastre.

The CSR 2021 do not use the term computed or compiled plan.

Survey class

The survey class is displayed in the survey header, which can only show one class. If the CSD has used more than one class, the higher class is usually shown in the header, although the majority class may be shown instead. If more than one class is used, the additional classes and reasons for their use can be discussed in the survey report.

Refer also to the Field Survey guideline about accuracy of boundaries.

Dataset description

Every CSD must include a dataset description (r 71(c) and r 117(b)). The dataset description is to include:

  • parcel appellations for all new primary parcels
  • the survey purpose for land transfer and simple boundary reinstatement CSDs
  • the appellation of the land under survey for land transfer CSDs.

Examples are:

  • Lots 1 and 2 being subdivision of Lot 3 DP 456789
  • Areas A and B over Lot 3 DP 456789
  • Sections 1-10.

The dataset description can be imported into the survey header from a Land XML file or manually entered in the Manage Survey Transaction or Survey Header screens as the Survey Description.

If the dataset description is manually entered it should be entered as one continuous line without using the 'Enter' key, otherwise the description will truncate into two areas and not display correctly in the survey header or system generated survey and title sheets.

The captured dataset description will display in full in the CSD survey header. However, the system generated plans will only display the first 272 characters of the dataset description. If a dataset description is longer than this and does not fully display in the system generated plans the requirements of CSR 2021 are still met as the complete description will show in the CSD survey header. If desired, the full wording of the dataset description can be added as user added text to the survey and title sheets.

The captured dataset description should match the description in the survey report. This will automatically be included in the automated survey report.

Refer also to the Content of a CSD guideline about dataset description.

Meridional circuit

A CSD Plan must identify the horizontal datum and projection used (r 77(a)). There is no requirement to reference an origin of coordinates or provide a coordinate listing of survey marks and points.

Populate this field with the horizontal datum and circuit projection that the bearings of the survey are in terms of. Schedule 3 CSR 2021 lists the official geodetic datum and projections.

Refer also to the Field Survey guideline about horizontal datum: orientation.

Vertical datum

Where a reduced level is used to mathematically describe a height-limited boundary (formerly called a stratum boundary), the CSD Plan must include the vertical datum (r 77(b)).

Populate this field with the vertical datum that the reduced levels are in terms of. Schedule 5 CSR 2021 lists the official vertical datums.


The Cadastral Survey Amendment Rules 2023 impacting Schedule 5 comes into force on 1 July 2024.

Cadastral Survey Amendment Rules 2023

Where no level information is included the vertical datum field must be set to ‘none’.

Refer also to the Field Survey guideline about vertical datum.

Survey finish date

When entering the Survey Finish Date (r 76(c)) in the Survey Header screen, ensure that the correct date is entered and that the correct date format is used.

The date entered must be before the first lodgement and typically represents the last field day.

Comprised in reference

Rule 92(i) requires the title plan to include the estate record references for the land under survey. A CSD survey header must capture the associated comprised in record of title (RT) references for

  • all underlying primary parcels being extinguished
  • all referenced parcels.

Where an underlying RT is ‘limited as to parcels’ this status must be captured by ticking the check box next to the RT reference. The reference entered needs to be in the correct format for existing titles or Gazette notices.

Gazette notices

Gazette notice references in cadastral survey datasets should preferably use the format ‘[year], p [page number]’ or ‘[year], LN [notice number]’ as applicable. Landonline will automatically add ‘GN’ to the start of the comprised in reference.

Prior to 20 October 2014, Gazette notices were referenced by quoting the year of publication in the New Zealand Gazette and the page number on which the notice appears. Since moving to online publication notices now have a unique notice number that should be referenced.

Referenced survey

It is a requirement to list in the survey header all referenced surveys used in the determination of a CSD (r 76(b) and r 119(b)). This typically includes all existing approved CSDs that have been used as an adoption source but can include other relevant CSDs.

Other relevant surveys could include CSDs researched for information but not actually adopted from. Information is provided below about showing bearing corrections for referenced plans that have not been assessed for bearing corrections.

Bearing corrections

Showing a bearing correction (r 78) in the survey header relates to referenced surveys that have had a bearing correction applied to adopted vectors sourced from those surveys. Listing the bearing corrections provides confidence that the orientation of the adopted work is in terms of the projection selected for the survey.

The term ‘bearing correction’ as used in the Landonline survey header and vector capture of a CSD means the same as ‘bearing adjustment’ in CSR 2021.

Refer also to bearing corrections in vector capture below.

Manual capture

To make use of the Landonline manual capture functionality, record bearing corrections in the survey header before capturing the observations. Ensure that a minus (-) symbol is shown if the correction is negative.

Referenced surveys not assessed for bearing adjustment

It is not necessary to capture a bearing correction in the survey header for referenced surveys that have not had bearings adopted from them. In this instance leaving the bearing correction field blank in the survey header is acceptable.

Showing a bearing correction of 0°00’00” for a referenced survey in the survey header should be avoided if the referenced survey has not been assessed for bearing corrections. This could give the false impression that the orientation of the referenced survey has been considered and is in terms of rule 16(3) when it may not have been evaluated. In this instance showing a ‘blank’ value for the bearing correction is preferable.

Multiple corrections

If more than one bearing correction has been applied to a referenced survey, the Survey Header should reflect the correction applied to most vectors. Please include a full explanation in the survey report (r 72 and r 118).

Refer also to the Content of a CSD guideline about reporting on bearings and levels.

Territorial authorities

The territorial authority (TA) in which the survey is located must be recorded in the TA certification tab in the manage survey transaction screen before it will display in the survey header screen. More than one TA may be added if required.

The TA name(s) in the survey header screen will be automatically included in the Title Plan as required by rule 92(b).

Mark capture

Information on aspects of mark capture.

Mark name

The cadastre is being continually updated by the integration of new CSDs and the introduction of more and more survey marks. It is essential that survey marks that relate to specific points can be identified and not confused with other marks.

New survey marks to be given unique names

All new survey marks and points must be given unique names (r 80(2)). These include new permanent reference marks (PRMs), non-boundary marks and boundary marks (including unmarked points).

Components of a new mark name

The name must be described using three components in the following sequence (r 80(2)):

  • Physical mark type which may be abbreviated, for example ‘IT’ for iron tube.
  • Unique alpha-numeric identifier, for example ‘1’. Note, the same alpha-numeric identifier cannot be used for more than one new mark on the same CSD, regardless of mark type (for example there cannot be a new IT 1 and a new Peg 1).
  • Type and number of the CSD, for example ‘DP 405689’.

Note that rule 80(2)(a) specifically requires unmarked points to use ‘UNMK’ as the abbreviation type.

Changing the name of an existing survey mark

If an existing non-boundary mark or boundary point does not have a unique name, a unique identifier may be added in brackets before the CSD reference (r 80(3)). For example, marks adopted from DP 7700 could become IT (1) DP 7700 and UNMK (2) DP 7700. This unique name will then be used on future CSDs (r 80(4)), unless there are duplicate names, in which case the identifier may be changed to make it unique. Note that using a new unique identifier will create conflict in the validation report.

If additional information is to be added to a mark for the benefit of future users (for example a geodetic code or mark description), it needs to be clear that this information is not part of the mark name. One way of ensuring this is to capture this detail in the mark description field or depict the information on the survey plan under the mark name in brackets.

Name of undisturbed old mark

An undisturbed old non-boundary or boundary mark that already has a unique identifier, must retain its existing name (r 80(4)) including the physical mark type, unique identifier and the CSD source type and number.

Plan references

Label marks with the plan number as DP, not LT. Mark names do not get updated once they are created therefore on deposit the mark name is not able to change from LT to DP. LT is able to be used in the Survey Header for referenced plans and in the Traverse/Observation screen for adopted observations as these fields are updated automatically when the plan deposits.


Mark purpose

Landonline automatic business rules that run at CSD pre-validation and submission rely on, amongst other things, correct capture of mark details.

These attributes also have an impact on the assignment of mark order when a CSD is integrated into the cadastre. It is important that careful attention is paid to capture of mark attributes.

Landonline provides for six mark purposes:

  • boundary
  • non-boundary
  • PRM
  • PRM/boundary
  • CSNM/VCM (for a cadastral survey network mark or vertical control mark)
  • not defined.

Boundary points

All boundary points (primary and non-primary) must use the mark purpose ‘Boundary’ whether defined by survey, adopted or accepted.

There is no distinction between boundary points on new or existing parcels in respect of mark purposes. Therefore, if a boundary point was created to define a boundary position, and still serves that purpose, it must be captured with a mark purpose of boundary, regardless of whether it is on a parcel being created by the current CSD or not.

In some circumstances, a boundary mark can also be a PRM, in which case the mark purpose of PRM/Boundary must be used. The mark would need to meet the usability and durability requirements of rule 33 for a PRM.

The remaining mark purpose of not defined can only be associated with the mark state of system added. This mark purpose is automatically assigned to missed marks (mandatory or optional) that are included in a CSD.

Refer to Blue nodes – selecting missed marks.

Non-boundary marks

A non-boundary mark may be used as a PRM, in which case the mark purpose of PRM must be used. Other non-boundary marks must have a mark purpose of non-boundary.

If a boundary point was originally created to define a boundary position, but it is no longer on a parcel boundary (for example, a disturbed or redundant boundary mark), then it must have a mark purpose of non-boundary unless it is used as a PRM.

Cadastral survey network marks / vertical control marks

CSR 2021 rules 17(1), 18(2) & (3), 51(2)(c) and 53(2)(c) require the survey to be connected to a cadastral survey network mark (CSNM) or include a vertical control mark (VCM). Where a CSNM or VCM is connected to the survey by vectors and it is not a permanent reference mark, it must be shown on the survey diagram with a triangle symbol (CSR 2021 Schedule 7, table 9).  

Where a CSNM or VCM also serves the purpose of a PRM then the mark should be shown with a PRM symbol (CSR 2021 r 90 & Schedule 7 2(2)).

In some situations, there are multiple CSNMs or VCMs in the vicinity and connected to the survey.  Only CSNMs or VCMs that are connected to in order to satisfy the requirements of rules 17, 18, 51(2)(c) and 53(2)(c) and are not permanent reference marks need to be identified with a triangle symbol.  Other CSNMs or VCMs can be shown as non-boundary as specified in CSR 2021 Schedule 7, table 9.

Refer to When network connection requirement applies in Field Survey guidance.

Mark condition

Landonline provides sixteen mark conditions. Being:

  1. damaged
  2. dangerous
  3. destroyed
  4. mark found
  5. moved
  6. not accessible
  7. searched for and not found
  8. not specified
  9. reliably placed
  10. removed
  11. submerged
  12. temporary
  13. threatened
  14. unstable
  15. impracticable to mark
  16. uncertain existence.

Some examples are described below:

  • Marks with the condition of 'searched for and not found' means that the surveyor went out into the field to look for that mark but could not find it. Not obtaining a metal detector signal does not necessarily constitute looking for the mark.
  • Where a boundary point is ‘impracticable to mark’ the condition needs to reflect this (r 80(6)). This will allow Landonline to test whether a boundary point needs to be referenced.
  • Where the mark condition was not determined while the survey was being conducted, the condition should be ‘not specified’. This should only apply to adopted marks that do not fit into the other condition options.
  • Uncertain existence and dangerous are for internal LINZ use only and should not be used in a CSD.

Mark type

Rule 80(2)(a) requires new survey marks to have an abbreviation that describes the physical mark type or UNMK if there is no mark. Landonline also has a drop-down list of mark types that should match the physical mark type. Where the mark type is not available on the list, ‘other’ should be used.

Previously a nail or disc on a post was recorded with a type of ‘Post’. Schedule 7 clarifies that a mark in the post should be recorded with that mark type rather than post. Therefore, it will be shown on the plan with a circle symbol, rather than the square post symbol.

The mark abbreviation and mark type should match. This applies to new, old and adopted marks meaning some mark types will need to be edited in Landonline due to the clarification by the CSR 2021. It is common practice that iron pipes are abbreviated as IT.

Mark state

Landonline provides four mark states:

  • adopted
  • new
  • old
  • system added.

'Old' means 'already in cadastre' and measured to. The definitions for old survey mark and old boundary mark mean that a mark is permitted to be recorded as 'old' only where its presence is already recorded in the cadastre (normally where the mark has already been recorded on an approved CSD).

Where a mark is found but its presence is not already recorded in Landonline or on a CSD (the mark is unofficial), then this mark must be considered as new to the cadastre (irrespective of the physical age of the mark).

In the cadastre there are CSDs that have been approved as to survey or approved for record purposes only. In both cases, these CSDs may have recorded old peg (OP) no record or other similar marks. These marks are official for the purposes of future surveys, but their evidential value would need to be carefully assessed and their positions proven. If used in the current survey they must be referred to as an old mark from the approved CSD that named and depicted it.

Where an unrecorded boundary mark is included in a CSD and has evidential value, it must be considered as new to the cadastre. This can be achieved by treating the mark as a new boundary mark. In this circumstance, the surveyor is taking responsibility for the correctness of its position as a new boundary marker (r 13).

An unrecorded non-boundary mark must be treated as a new mark. This includes traverse marks placed by a survey not yet approved by LINZ.

Marks from approved monumentation CSDs are authoritative.

An approved monumentation CSD is an authoritative CSD source. Surveys that use a mark originally recorded on a monumentation CSD must treat it as an old survey mark (Schedule 2).

Mark reliability

It is essential that the primary evidence of existing boundary location (old marks) is dealt with in a consistent and appropriate manner. This not only ensures that boundaries are correctly relocated, but that future users are able to evaluate the evidential value of this information.

Renewed marks

The term 'renewed mark' applies to a mark placed in the same position as an old mark that has been physically located. This applies to both boundary and non-boundary marks. If an old mark is not found, a new mark cannot renew it.

'In the position of' or 'replaced' instead of 'renewed' are not appropriate terms as they are not clear as to whether an old mark had been found prior to the placement of a new mark. Standardising the term 'renewed' is a clear indicator that the primary evidence of a position (the old mark) was found before it was replaced with a new mark.

Refer to Capturing renewed marks.

Reinstated marks

'Reinstated' applies to a mark placed in the same documentary position as an unfound mark placed by a prior survey. This applies to both non-boundary and boundary marks.

'In the position of' or 'replaced' instead of 'reinstated' are not appropriate terms as they are not clear as to whether an old mark had been found prior to the placement of a new mark. Standardising the term 'reinstated' is a clear indicator that the primary evidence of a position (the old mark) was not found, and a new mark has been placed on that point. This allows future users to clearly evaluate the evidential value of this information.

Refer to Capturing reinstated marks.

Disturbed marks

Where a mark physically exists but is not in its original position as defined by previous surveys and the change in position is not due to Canterbury earthquake movement or fault zone movement (Schedule 2) it should be recorded as a disturbed mark. The disturbed mark must be treated as a new mark in its new position (r 37(3)).

The use of the term 'disturbed' is a clear indicator that the primary evidence (the old mark) has been found but that the surveyor has determined that it is not in the position it was originally placed. This allows future users to evaluate the evidential value of this information.

Historically, old marks (particularly old traverse marks) that appeared to be physically undisturbed, but when compared with other old marks via adopted vectors did not fit within mathematical tolerances, were in some cases termed ‘unreliable’ or ‘out of position’. The meaning of this term is not clear, and its use is therefore not appropriate. The surveyor is required to determine if a mark is in its original position or not. The fact that measurements indicate a mathematical disagreement with other marks does not necessarily determine the mark as being disturbed.

Disturbed boundary marks may be removed or driven below the surface (r 37(1)). Reporting of any disturbed marks must be detailed in the survey report (r 72(g)).

Refer to Capturing disturbed marks.

Mark description

For each PRM, a record of survey must describe the relationship to the ground level and its situation (r 80(8)), for example, down 0.3 in berm. Other marks are not required to have a description; however, it may be helpful for future surveyors. Renewed, reinstated, and disturbed marks have specific wording as detailed in the section above that needs to be included.

Descriptions of marks can be captured in the Landonline 'mark detail – description' field. This enables the information to be displayed on the survey diagram and to be viewed with the object information tool in the spatial window. It will also appear at the end of the mark and vector report in the record of survey.

Additional information about the location of a PRM can be provided in a supporting document that bundles with the record of survey.

Geodetic marks

Geodetic mark names and types are unable to be edited by e-survey users. This is to protect the existing information associated with geodetic marks.

To request a geodetic mark name correction by LINZ’s geodetic team, use the online enquiry form:

Online enquiry form.

Ensure you choose the subject ‘Geodetic mark updates and information' option and note if the request is urgent.

Alternatively, send an email to with 'Geodetic mark updates' in the subject line, and details of the update required.

The two methods above are preferred for advising geodetic mark changes rather than using the survey report template as they enable the change to be made prior to submitting the CSD. The survey report template remains appropriate for other survey system maintenance comments.

Replacing geodetic marks

A geodetic mark is sometimes renewed or reinstated while carrying out a cadastral survey.

Where this occurs, it is important that the survey report clearly describes the action completed by the surveyor to enable the geodetic database to be updated with the new mark information.

Many geodetic marks have ellipsoidal and/or normal orthometric height information. In this situation, the information in the survey report needs to clearly state whether the replacement mark is in the same vertical position (within 3mm) as the original mark or if the height information has changed.

‘Destroyed’ geodetic marks

When adopting a geodetic mark with an existing condition of ‘Destroyed’ into a new cadastral survey, the condition of ‘Destroyed’ should be maintained, i.e. put in again.

The reason for this is that in Landonline the default value for Mark Condition is ‘Reliably Placed/Found’ for adopted marks. Consequently, geodetic marks with a condition of ‘Destroyed’ are being updated to ‘Reliably Placed/Found’ when adopted in a cadastral survey. This information is then automatically recorded into the LINZ Geodetic Database.

A geodetic mark known to be ‘Destroyed’ therefore ends up with a condition of ‘Reliably Placed/Found’, creating confusion for future users of that mark. It is important that the true condition of the mark is maintained.

Mark linking

All captured existing survey marks and boundary points in a CSD must be linked to the corresponding mark and node in Landonline where it exists. If there is no corresponding mark and node then mark linking is not required as the missing node will be created when the dataset is integrated into Landonline. Linked marks are displayed in the spatial view with a blue square around the mark (unless linked as a renewed or disturbed mark).

Marks can be linked in Landonline by manually selecting the relevant marks in the spatial view, using the mark detail screen, or running automatic linking. If linking spatially, the underlying mark layer should be selected to make it active, and it is recommended this layer is dragged to the top of the current layer list so underlying marks are shown above all other layers. This makes it easier to see underlying marks that have been captured where the underlying position in Landonline is very close.

Automatic linking can be run in Landonline with specific proximity tolerances selected. Two or more marks should be linked manually before using automatic linking and the smallest appropriate proximity tolerance level should be used to ensure correct mark links are achieved. It is recommended this is run only within SDC areas. Note that Landonline can only link a maximum of 50 marks at one time therefore the process may need to be repeated.

Refer to Linking of marks located close together.


Placeholders can be used in Landonline to force captured marks to a particular location. Placeholders should be used with caution as their use can often mask legitimate capture errors. This is particularly true for observations that form topology such as parcel boundaries.

It is preferable to use placeholders only for points associated with non-boundary vectors.

Avoid using placeholders:

  • for CSDs in SDC areas. Instead consider the Exception Process prior to linking
  • to correct a slight kink in a line. You can use the 'Co-ordinate' icon in 'Plan Generation – Layout Sheets', to straighten the line.

Watch for topology overlap, as overlaps in the new data after marks are linked can be due to:

  • incorrect capture
  • incorrect linking
  • Landonline data not in an accurate position
  • the linking of all marks (either by 3rd party software or manually in Landonline) inadvertently constraining all other data (not required to be linked).

Refer to:

Vector capture

CSDs must include vector information that describes the survey relationship between all marks and points. This enables the points and marks to be correctly located in the cadastre and for users to set out and relocate these positions in the future.

Vector type

Vector types are either right line or arc.

Arcs require the chord bearing and arc length to be recorded along with radius and direction (r 105(1)(b)). Arc direction is the direction of the arc as it radiates away from the chord between the ‘from’ and ‘to’ marks and is recorded as left (clockwise) or right (anti-clockwise) of the chord bearing.

Vector layer

There are 128 vector layer combinations in Landonline with seven commonly used ones being:

  • non-boundary
  • primary
  • secondary
  • tertiary
  • strata
  • secondary centre-line
  • tertiary centre-line.

The remaining layers are a combination of the different boundary options. For example a boundary vector that is a lot boundary as well as an easement boundary would be 3 - Pri,Sec to reflect the two types of parcels represented by that vector. Parcels are only able to be selected for linking when the vectors in the layer associated with the parcel form a closed figure. Refer to Landonline help (vector layer definitions) for further information.

There is an additional vector layer type specifically for the capture of reinstatement boundaries.

Refer to the guideline on Boundary reinstatement surveys.

Accuracy class of right-line boundaries

A record of survey must include the accuracy class of each boundary (r 79) or reinstated boundary (r 119(f)). In Landonline the accuracy class is captured in the vector 'survey class' field.

In the case of height-limited boundaries where the information is depicted in a CSD as aspatial information (not captured digitally), the accuracy class can be depicted on the aspatial plan graphic.

Accuracy class of water and irregular boundaries

Accuracy classes do not apply to water, water centre-line, and irregular boundaries, whether new, adopted, or accepted (r 29(1)). However, the capture and depiction of the position of these boundaries still needs to be determined to a sufficient level of accuracy to take into account the factors in rule 29(2), unless they are accepted (r 29(3)).

Landonline does not provide for individual capture of bearing and distance accuracy classes. Where these are required, the vectors need to be captured as class AD, BD, or CD with the first letter representing the bearing accuracy class and the second letter the distance accuracy class.

Refer to the Water boundaries guideline about accuracy of water boundaries.

Refer also to the Boundaries guideline about accuracy of irregular and water centre-line boundaries.

Measured vectors

All measured vectors must record the equipment type (r 78(d)). This is recorded in vector details from the list available. Unknown is used for calculated or adopted vectors when it is uncertain how the measurement was derived.

Refer also to Content of a CSD guideline about reporting on equipment.

Bearing corrections

When capturing bearing corrections applied to individual adopted vectors the correction values must agree with the value shown in survey header for the referenced survey unless the differences are adequately explained in the survey report.

A valid reason where a bearing correction for an individual vector may differ from the survey header is when a surveyor has determined differing correction values are required to be applied to separate sets of vectors from the same source CSD. In this rare situation a value that matches most of the applied bearing corrections should be shown in the survey header with any different values shown in the mark and vector report. Full justification for the differing corrections is required in the survey report (r 72(d)).

Refer also to bearing corrections in the survey header above.

Adoption source

The CSR 2021 require adopted information to be copied without change, except when a bearing correction has been applied or the units of measure have been converted (r 75). Copying information directly from Landonline may not meet this requirement. Adoptions should be made from or checked against the source CSD data.

The source used for adoptions should be the CSD that measured or calculated the information being adopted, rather than a CSD that merely adopted it from a previous CSD (r 75(2)).

Rule 75 does not refer to ‘original’ source so if following surveys measure the same vector, the adopted source should be the latest plan that measured or calculated that value. Applying a bearing correction to a vector is not considered to be calculating it.

GNSS vectors

Showing all measured GNSS vectors from a base station to the respective rover positions can cause excessive clutter on the CSD survey diagram. Even though some vectors can be excluded from plan generation, the captured vectors can still clutter the spatial view in Landonline and LandXML data extracts.

It is acceptable to simplify capture of GNSS data by showing rover to rover derived vectors as measured. A plan with only calculated vectors between old and new marks will not meet Landonline business rules. If a mark is considered new or old, then there must have been a measurement to it, and this needs to be recorded in vector capture. The equipment type must be captured as 'GNSS' (Lodgement Standard 4.2(b)).

This practice can create some additional risks for both surveyors and LINZ that need to be carefully managed. The omission of some measured vectors and substitution of calculated or derived vectors can increase the risk of errors going undetected. This means that Landonline validation checks could give a false indication of accuracy even with a significant degree of network redundancy. It may also affect Landonline network adjustment and make it more difficult to resolve errors discovered by subsequent surveys.

Surveyors are expected to demonstrate that they have adequately managed the accuracy risks. This should be covered in the survey report.

A tabulation of the measured GNSS vectors or a summary of the adjustment results can be submitted as a supporting document. This is not routinely used by LINZ for validation purposes but could be useful for demonstrating risk mitigation and for resolving any subsequent data conflict or data integration issues.

Resection vectors

Resections by total station are a common survey methodology for cadastral surveys.  Resections allow for the total station to be set up in a safe location and in a position free from obstructions.

Where a total station resection has been used in a cadastral survey the survey diagram should record the location of the resection and all measured vectors from it. Even if the total station has not been set up over a survey mark the unmarked position should still be recorded on the survey diagram. Independent verification of the reliability of any old marks used in a resection must be included in the cadastral survey dataset. For example, adoptions between the old marks, to ensure the accuracy standards of rule 19(1) are proven. 

While the preference is to show the location of the resection set up with measurements from it, derived vectors between existing survey marks can be used. Derived vectors must be shown as measured to satisfy rule CSR 2021 r 89(a),(b) & (c). 

Whether direct or derived vectors are shown on the survey diagram the field information must include the raw observations (r71(e)). The survey report must also include a description of the resection methodology, including where derived vectors have been used, and describe how compliance with the accuracy standards has been achieved, CSR 2021 r 72(o).

Figure 1: Survey diagram showing observations from an unmarked resection point

Figure 1: Survey diagram showing observations from an unmarked resection point

Trig observations

If a survey includes trig observations that are some distance away from the actual area of survey, the spatial window (Plan Generation/Define Diagram) may take some time to load.

Note that it is not necessary to calculate the distance to a distant trig if the bearing only is measured/observed. Despite rule 89(a) requiring the survey diagram to show a bearing and distance to every new and old survey mark, Landonline will accept a bearing only vector. Landonline business rule C620 will check a measured bearing and distance is captured. Where the distance is not recorded, a pre-validation warning will be identified. The survey report should address the C620 pre-validation warning. 

If a distance is calculated care needs to be taken that it represents the ellipsoidal distance after taking into account any line scale factor and projection correction that may need to be applied to a calculated grid distance.

Refer to Scale factors, scale differences and scale adjustment.

Refer also to Capturing remote trig observations.

Parcel capture

Information on aspects of parcel capture.

Parcel action

There are six options available under the parcel action drop down list.

  • Affected
  • Created
  • Encroached
  • Extinguished
  • Proposed
  • Referenced.

Created and Proposed will be new parcels in the CSD, while the other four are parcels that exist in Landonline and will need to be searched for and linked to where appropriate.


Where a parcel created in a new survey is affected by an amalgamation condition, the existing parcel with which the new parcel is to be amalgamated is an Affected parcel. Use Affected as the action for the parcel.

Tip for remembering, Affected and Amalgamation both start with A.

The Affected action is only used for RT amalgamations. Titles cannot be linked to Encroached, Extinguished or Referenced parcels.

Where there is no amalgamation condition, but an adjoining parcel is encroached upon, extinguished by, or referenced by a CSD, use the actions Encroached, Extinguished, or Referenced for the parcel, as appropriate.


The parcel is created by the CSD. When the CSD is registered in Landonline (upon deposit or recording of statutory action) the parcel becomes current.


An existing primary parcel can be captured as encroached where it is legitimately overlapped by a primary parcel being created on a CSD.

This most commonly occurs where a parcel on one side of a stream is encroached on because of accretion claimed for a parcel on the other side of the stream. In this instance, the stream parcel will probably need to be extinguished where the parcels on either side of the stream overlap with each other.


The parcel is replaced by parcels created on the CSD. When the CSD is registered the parcel becomes historic.


The parcel is introduced on the CSD but not actually created. This will only apply to principal and accessory units on a Proposed Unit Development plan (PUD). The parcel will be created in a subsequent plan (for example Stage 1 of the unit development).


A referenced parcel is a parcel that is related to the CSD but is not created or extinguished and its status will not change because of the CSD. For example:

  • fee simple parcels in flats or unit plans
  • an underlying fee simple parcel in an easement plan.

Parcel intent

There are many parcel intents available for selection in Landonline. The appropriate usage depends on the property rights and actions associated with the parcel being created.

Refer to Parcel intent usage for information about the different parcel intent types, including when they should or should not be used. This information is also available in Landonline help (search parcel intents).

Historical parcel intents are no longer able to be used for new parcels but may be associated with existing parcels in Landonline.

Refer to Historical parcel intents or Landonline help (search historic parcel intents).

Refer also to the guideline on Parcels.

Refer also to Legalisation CSDs Parcel Intents.

Extinguishing subject parcels

When a dataset is creating new parcels, capture the current underlying parcels as ‘extinguished’ in the parcel list. If the wrong parcels are selected as extinguished, missed marks (blue nodes) that are not part of the new dataset will appear along the boundaries when linking.

Refer to Extinguishing subject parcels.

Parcel topology

Parcels can be created where the vector layers form a closed loop. For further details refer to Landonline help (search parcel topology classes).

Reinstatement topology defines a single line as part of a boundary reinstatement survey and does not need to form a closed parcel loop. Its appearance is like primary topology.

Parcel linking

All new parcels need to be linked. Linked parcels display in the parcel list screen with a tick in the linked check box. Existing parcels (affected, encroached, extinguished, and referenced) do not show a tick in the parcel list but are linked when the existing parcel is selected or searched. Note not all existing easements are spatially defined in Landonline.

Refer to Linking multiple parcels.

Donut parcels

Donut parcels need to be located and linked correctly to avoid topology problems occurring in Landonline.

Donut parcels occur where a parcel is completely surrounded by another parcel and they are not connected by boundaries of the same topology. They are two independent parcel rings. An example is an island in the middle of a lake. The island is the inner parcel ring with the lake being the outer parcel ring. Another is a farmhouse property that is a separate parcel from the farm parcel that surrounds it.

Surveys may indirectly incorporate donut parcels by virtue of exclusion. The subject parcels may border an existing parcel (or parcels) completely, which is not subject to the survey.

To respect the topology of a donut parcel, all the boundaries of the inner ring parcel in the new survey needs to be addressed.

Locating Donut Parcels

You need to spatially locate inner rings caused by donut parcels within their parent ring. Parcel rings must follow a specific boundary direction convention in Landonline. That is, the ‘inside’ of the parcel must always be on the right hand side of a boundary. This means that outer rings are in a clockwise direction and inner rings are in an anti-clockwise direction.

Avoiding parcel linking failure

During pre-validation, when a new parcel is linked for the first time in Landonline to pass the Y004 pre-validation rule (or a parcel re-linked in Landonline to pass the Y015 pre-validation rule), Landonline will check for any mandatory or optional missed marks around the underlying parcels being extinguished in the survey. Any missed marks that bound the extents of the new parcels can be included. Refer to blue nodes – selecting missed marks below.

If you include any mandatory or optional missed marks that fall on the boundary of a donut parcel, an application error message will appear and parcel linking will fail.

How do I deal with Donut Parcels?

If your survey is only dealing with the outer ring parcel, follow the steps below to ensure the topology of the inner ring is respected.

  • Turn on the ‘Underlying Marks’ layer and ensure you move this layer to the top of the ‘Current Layers’ tab.
  • Turn on the ‘Underlying Parcel Bdy Lines’ layer.
  • Turn on the ‘Underlying Vectors’ layer.

If there are no vectors in Landonline between all the existing nodes on the inner ring parcel, adopt the ‘Underlying Parcel Bdy Lines’ ensuring you adopt all of them.

If there are vectors captured between all the nodes on the inner ring parcel, then adopt those vectors.

If there are some boundaries with no vectors and some with, then you can adopt the vectors where there are some, and adopt the underlying parcel bdy lines for the rest.

You do NOT need to extinguish the inner ring parcel if you follow the above steps.

Failure to follow the above steps will result in mandatory/optional missed marks appearing on the inner ring boundaries – do no bring them in.  Instead, go through the above steps to ensure all the boundaries on the inner ring parcel boundaries are addressed.

If your survey is only dealing with the inner ring parcel, you do NOT need to address the outer ring parcel.

If you are creating a new donut parcel and both the inner and outer ring parcels are to be newly created parcels:

  • ensure that the inner ring parcel is linked BEFORE the outer ring parcel.

Blue nodes – selecting missed marks

Existing marks not used in the definition of new parcels show as either ‘mandatory’ or ‘optional’ missed marks when the new parcels are linked.

The term ‘blue node’ originates from the colour of the node displayed during the parcel linking process.

Only accept missed marks on right-lined boundaries. Never accept mandatory or optional missed marks along irregular boundaries.

If the survey includes missed marks along an existing irregular line, the new irregular line may fail to appear in the layout sheets.

For possible fixes refer to Irregular boundaries – not displaying in Layout Sheets.

Optional missed marks

Select optional missed marks if:

  • there are cadastral vectors connected to the mark in Landonline (turn on the Vectors/cadastral vectors layer in the Landonline-Searches Spatial Window to check for any existing cadastral vectors to the mark)
  • the vectors are added to the tree in the Search screen, and therefore, the source can be checked
  • they are boundary marks defined on a previous CSD.

Refer also to Capture – irregular boundaries.

Non-primary parcels

Existing easements and covenants that are already spatially captured in Landonline need to be extinguished in parcel capture and recaptured in terms of the new CSD if they are to be retained.

Existing easements and covenants that are to be retained need to be captured with appellations based on the new CSD. Bearings and distances are not required to be shown on the title diagram if they are from an approved CSD, however they still need to be captured. The title diagram should clearly identify the CSD the boundary has been adopted from with the annotation ‘Parcel adopted from [CSD number]’ (r 103).

Intersections between new and existing non-primary parcels need to be captured if the parcels are in the same topology layer.

Easements must be identified in an easement schedule or memorandum in accordance with rules 93 and 94. It is recommended this should also include easements that are to be surrendered. Existing easements should reference their creating document.

Refer also to the Non-primary parcels guideline.

Refer also to the Legalisation CSDs guideline about existing easements.

Existing centre-line easements

All existing centre-line easements must be converted to polygons where the width is known (r 49) unless they are within a primary parcel over 100 ha that has accepted boundaries. In this case it may remain as a centre-line (r 54). Where the width is unknown the easement must be annotated 'Width unknown' on the title diagram (r 103).

Centre-line easement with unknown width

Figure 2: Centre-line easement with unknown width.

Intersecting centre-line easements

Centre-line easements can cross over each other, provided they are captured in two separate topology classes (one secondary centre-line, the other tertiary centre-line).

If they are both the same topology class, capture the intersections but link the portions as one centre-line parcel (see following point below). Multiple centre-line segments can be linked as one centre-line parcel where they are all contained within the same estate.

Add underlying centre-line easement parcels to the parcel list as ‘extinguished’.

Easements that intersect with existing water, water centre-line or irregular boundaries

If a new CSD is only defining non-primary parcels, such as easements or covenants, and these new parcels intersect with an existing water, water centre-line or irregular boundary, you need to split the water, water centre-line or irregular boundary so that the new nodes can be linked into the parcel topology. This will need to be raised as an Exception request through Landonline.

When an Exception request is raised, you must advise LINZ of the newly captured mark name, i.d. and description where the existing line should be split.

Existing easements to be surrendered (Full surrender when parcels are in Landonline)

Include surrender details in easement schedule (r 92(h)). Also note this in your survey report.

Existing easements to be surrendered (Partial surrender when parcels are in Landonline but not over a new primary parcel being created)

This includes surrendering easements over an appurtenant parcel or on an ‘easement-only’ CSD.

Refer to Non-primary parcels guideline on surrendering part of an easement or revoking part of a covenant.

Existing easements to be surrendered (Partial surrender when parcels are in Landonline and over a new primary parcel being created)

Capture both the portion to be surrendered and the portion to be retained.

Include surrender details in easement schedule (r 92(h)). Also note this in your survey report.

Access lots

Information on aspects of access lots.

New access lots

New access lots will be captured as a new parcel as per standard parcel capture process.

Parcel Detail:

  • Action: Created
  • Parcel Intent: Fee Simple
  • Topology Class: Primary
  • Area (ha): Area for this lot only
  • Appellation Format: General.

Title Allocation – title references that benefit from an access lot should be allocated as per the amalgamation condition. For example, if Lots 1-4 are individual owners' properties and have RsT from 100201 to 100204, and Lot 5 is an Access Lot, allocations would be:

  • Lot 1 - 100201,
  • Lot 2 - 100202,
  • Lot 3 - 100203,
  • Lot 4 - 100204,
  • Lot 5 - 100201, 100202, 100203, 100204. (Will show in title allocation as multiple).

Plan Generation - Access lots will appear as an ordinary Lot (for example Lot 5). User added text can be used to add the words Access Lot, however this is not a requirement of the CSR 2021.

Amalgamation condition – LINZ's preference is not to include any amalgamation wording on the title diagram. This is because incorrect wording will require post-approval amendment of the CSD. Amalgamation wording is generally included in the TA certificate under s 223 Resource Management Act 1991. It is recommended that if amalgamation wording is included in the title plan, it should be shown on, or attached as, a schedule/memorandum supporting document.

Existing access lots

Do not capture the boundaries of existing access lots that are not common with the subdivision’s external boundaries. The access lot should be recorded in the parcel list with the action of ‘affected’. The appropriate RT references should be allocated to the parcel in the title allocation screen.

Balance parcels

The balance parcel process is used during survey capture to deal with the balance of a parcel that does not need to be dimensioned but must be created to keep the database topology correct. In this case the vectors do not need to be captured.

For example: A road legalisation stops part of a road. At survey capture, the whole road parcel is extinguished in the survey. A new section will be created for the part of the road to be stopped. The remainder of the existing road parcel must be dealt with as a balance parcel with a parcel intent of ‘Road’ to keep the cadastral database up to date.

The balance parcel can be captured manually or using the automatic process balance parcel functionality. Search for Processing balance parcels within Landonline Help and follow the links with the headings given below:

Automatic processing (ideal for creating large balance parcels as the system selects the lines for you)

  • Selecting existing boundary lines or
  • Adopting existing boundary definitions.

Manual processing (ideal for creating small balance parcels)

  • Processing balance parcel using underlying parcel boundary lines or
  • Processing balance parcel using underlying vectors.

Refer to the Parcels guideline for further information about balance parcels.

Height-limited parcels

Height-limited parcels are commonly used for primary parcels defined in three dimensions and therefore may overlap other primary parcels in Landonline. They are parcels that would otherwise be classified as primary were it not for the fact that, when becoming live, they violate the 'no-overlaps' rule. Some examples are height-limited subdivisions, bridges, and tunnels. These should not be confused with Units that are not spatially represented in Landonline.

Refer also to the Boundaries guideline about height-limited boundaries.

Refer also to the Capturing height-limited parcels guideline.

Refer also to the Non-primary guideline on height-limited boundaries.

Supporting documents

Additional supporting documents.

Easement and covenant information

New and existing easements to be retained are required to be depicted in tabular form with the appropriate heading (r 93 and r 94). Covenant information must also be detailed within the title plan (r 95).

There are two ways that the easement tables can be incorporated into the CSD:

  • using the Automated Schedule/Memorandum functionality in Landonline
  • attaching an image in Landonline.

Find templates for creating easement tables manually.

Survey report

The survey report is a way to provide the ‘basis’, ‘details’, ‘reasons’, ‘assessment’, ‘descriptions’ and ‘decisions’ pertaining to the survey.

There are two ways that a survey report can be incorporated into the CSD:

  • using the Automated Survey Report functionality in Landonline
  • attaching an image in Landonline.

Refer also to the Content of a CSD guideline about survey report information.

Field information

All relevant field information must be included in the CSD, in a form that ensures permanent usability (r 71(e) and r 117(d)).

Refer also to the Content of a CSD guideline about field information.

Water boundary record

Rule 71(f) requires an accurate record of the position of a new water boundary to be included.

Refer also to the Content of a CSD guideline about water boundary record.

Area schedule

Legalisation surveys require an area schedule to be included as part of the title plan (r 96).

Refer also to the Legalisation CSDs guideline about area schedules.

Plan generation

Some general plan generation recommendations:

  • Keep the number of Plan Generation sheets to a minimum.
  • Do not create any more User Defined Diagrams than are necessary.
  • Do not add user added text to create bearings/distances or areas on the layout sheets – if you do this then you are more than likely using the wrong diagrams to display the captured layers, and you also run the risk of adding incorrect information.
  • Check diagrams for clarity and remove any data overlaps before submitting.
  • Occupation information is best added as a supporting document type of Occupation Information in graphic form as per rule 81.
  • Label river boundaries with a description, and a source of adoption. This can be done through the edit boundary line functionality.
  • Retain an overall 'index' diagram for large surveys.

Parcels without survey information CSDs do not require a survey sheet to be generated. Remove any survey diagrams and data from the Survey layout sheet before selecting 'Complete' to generate your plans. The survey data will appear in the mark and vector report in the CSD record of survey.

You must re-generate the CSD system generated diagrams and mark and vector report after any amendments have been made to captured data, for example, after any edits are made to marks, vectors, parcels and associated linking. By pressing ‘Complete’ you are bundling up all the CSD components. A copy of the record of survey and title plan will be sent to ‘My messages’ of the primary contact and signing surveyor. This needs to be completed before the dataset can be submitted.

Diagram layers

Plan Generation functionality allows you to:

  • define identical non-primary diagrams to display secondary and tertiary parcels. This includes the ability to hide boundary lines and labels of non-required parcels to give emphasis to selected non-primary diagrams on both the primary diagram and non-primary diagram sheets
  • combine primary and non-primary parcels in a single diagram and show non-primary parcels in the survey sheet
  • show non-primary parcels in the survey sheet.

Refer to Combining and splitting diagrams – Plan Generation.

Depiction of marks and points

The primary evidence of boundary location (boundary points and marks) must be recorded in a consistent and appropriate manner. This ensures that the information is correctly located and referenced in the cadastre and that future users can interpret the information correctly.

Where a mark is from the national survey control system, the mark name from that system must be used (r 80(4)). Note: the geodetic code is not part of the name for CSD purposes although it may be included on the survey or title diagrams as an annotation or in the mark description.

On a survey diagram, new, old and adopted marks and points are depicted with the symbol types specified in Schedule 7 and the survey mark and point information specified in rule 82. When captured correctly they should display on the diagrams correctly in Landonline.

Boundary points of boundaries accepted under rule 15 or rule 54 are not required to be shown on a survey diagram (r 80(1)).

Refer to Mark Capture.

Depiction of vectors

In the CSR 2021 the term 'vector' refers to all vector components, not just the line or the arc they are associated with. The components of a right-lined vector are a bearing and distance, and for arcs this includes the chord bearing, arc distance, radius, and direction. The individual vector components, including those for arcs, may be either adopted from an existing survey, measured or calculated (r 78).

Where the CSR 2021 require a vector to be included in the survey diagram this includes the depiction of the vector components as well as the line or arc they are associated with. For arcs the arc direction is depicted graphically. The text, line style and width for vectors and arcs must comply with rules 90 and 106.

Where additional vectors are captured for the purposes of the survey that are not required by rule 89 to be included on the survey diagram, it is optional if these vectors and associated lines are shown on the survey diagram. For example, some GNSS vectors or check measurements that would otherwise unnecessarily clutter the survey diagram can be hidden. In this case the mark and vector report will show the vector components where they are not shown on the survey or title diagram.

The survey diagram must include at least one measured vector to every new or old survey mark (r 89(a)). The interpretation of what constitutes a measured vector and a calculated vector is left to the surveyor, however a plan with calculated vectors between old and new marks will not meet Landonline business rules. If a mark is considered new or old, then there must have been an observation to it, and this should be shown on the survey diagram. Schedule 7, Table 10 specifies the appropriate line style where the measured vector is depicted on a diagram.

Adopted or calculated vectors need to be shown on the survey diagram if used for the purpose of boundary definition. Likewise, any vectors required to establish a connection to cadastral survey network marks should also be shown on the survey diagram.

At least two measured vectors are required for every new non-boundary mark that is not disturbed (r 89(b)). At least two vectors are required for all boundary points except the end point of a water boundary, water centre-line boundary or an irregular boundary (r 89(e)).

For old non-boundary marks, while a single measured vector is necessary to ascertain the relationship, a second vector may not be necessary to verify this relationship. This will depend on how this old mark is held in the cadastre and Landonline:

  • The positions of marks that are survey-accurate (for example by their SDC status or coordinate order), can be used to provide verification, but
  • where the position of a mark in the cadastre is not survey accurate, additional vectors may be required to verify the accuracy between that mark and other marks and points.

The CSR 2021 do not require the intermediary points along a water boundary resulting from, for example, field ties, to be included in the record of survey. However, an accurate record of the position of any new water boundary needs to be included in the CSD (r 71(f)).

Refer also to the Content of a CSD guideline about water boundary record.

Non-primary parcels need to connect to at least two underlying primary parcel points either by being coincident or by non-boundary vectors, unless inaccurately determined (r 89(g)).

Vectors for an existing easement

Figure 3: Vectors for an existing easement

Refer to the Non-primary parcels guideline about defining non-primary parcels using the underlying parcel or control network.

Water, water centre-line and irregular boundaries on a survey diagram

A survey diagram must include at least one vector to the end points of water, water centre-line and irregular boundaries, which can be the boundary vector (r 89(e)).

Vectors to ascertain position of end points

Figure 4: Vectors to ascertain position of end points.

Refer also to Boundaries guideline about treatment of irregular and water centre-line boundaries in Landonline.

Refer also to Water boundaries guideline about end points and vector requirements.

Adopted vectors on a survey diagram

Adopted vectors used for the purposes of boundary definition must be depicted on a survey diagram (r 89(d)). This includes poor quality traverse vectors and abutting boundary vectors used as the best evidence of a boundary location.

Note: the practice of not electronically capturing these vectors in the CSD and instead recording them on a calculation sheet is no longer appropriate.

Adopted vectors depicted on the survey diagram

Figure 5: Adopted vectors depicted on the survey diagram

Boundary dimensions

Boundary dimensions must be shown on a title diagram (r 105). Boundary dimensions include the bearing and distance for right-line boundaries, and for arcs the chord bearing, arc distance and radius. The arc direction is depicted graphically. The text, line style and width for boundaries and arcs, including water, water centre-line and irregular boundaries must comply with rule 106.

Accepted boundaries do not require boundary dimensions to be shown, although annotation indicating the boundary is accepted and the source CSD is required (r 88 and r 104).

Refer to Annotations and ‘user added text’.

Boundary relationships

Depiction of the spatial relationships between boundaries (r 83) is primarily through the pictorial display (linework) of the boundaries in diagrams.

The diagrams must depict all the boundaries that are relevant and display the relationship between them. This applies in a horizontal and vertical context. The boundaries cannot be shown in isolation or not shown and merely referenced to preceding CSDs.

The spatial relationships must be clear and unambiguous (r 83(e)(ii)). Cross-sections are often an appropriate method of depicting the relationship between height-limited boundaries or between upper and lower permanent structure boundaries.

The depiction of boundaries in a plan graphic without dimensions is all that is necessary where there is a mixture of permanent structure boundaries (r 101), and mathematically described height-limited boundaries (r 86), and the relationship between the boundaries is clear and unambiguous.

Depiction of parcels

Primary parcels are the foundation on which the cadastre and individual ownership rights are built. It is essential that their location and extent is recorded unambiguously in the cadastre and on land title records.

A survey diagram focuses on the relationship between boundaries and the definition of those boundaries. It must depict the extent of all parcels (r 83(a)) and the relationships between parcels, boundaries, and boundary points (r 83(d)).

A title diagram focuses on the relationship between parcels, parcel boundaries and boundary points (r 105). It must depict the full extent of each parcel drawn to scale (drawn in proportion) in a single diagram (r 97(3)). Multiple parcels may be shown in this single diagram. Diagrams, not necessarily to scale, may be used to depict detail.

Additional diagrams may be necessary to ensure the relationships between parcels and the extent of each parcel is clear and unambiguous (r 107).

Extent of parcels

A survey diagram and title diagram must depict the extent of all parcels, including all residue parcels, but need not include any balance parcel or balance non-primary parcel (r 83(a) and r 97(1)(a) and (b)). The diagram will therefore include:

  • new primary parcels
  • new residue parcels, such as erosion parcels and parcels resulting from the removal of limitations as to parcels
  • existing non-primary parcels to be retained
  • new non-primary parcels.

While a balance parcel is not required to be depicted, the balance parcel is required to be captured in the CSD. If a surveyor chooses to depict a balance primary parcel on either a survey diagram or title diagram, the boundary dimensions for those accepted boundaries are not required to be depicted (r 105).


A survey diagram and title diagram must include the appellation of each new parcel. The appellation for new parcels may be abbreviated providing it is unique (r 83(c) and r 97(3)(b)).

For example:

  • Māori land - 'Tumu A7 ML 417582' depicted on the survey and title diagram as 'Tumu A7'
  • Residue parcel - 'Part Lot 5 DP 746' depicted on the diagram as 'Pt 5'.
Accepted boundaries with appellation on a residual parcel

Figure 6: Accepted boundaries with appellation on a residue parcel

A survey diagram and title diagram must depict the name of any road, railway, or water body where it abuts a new parcel. Examples are 'Lawford Road', 'NIMT Railway', and 'Whanganui River'. If no name is available for the road, railway, or water body, then a description must be used (r 87 and r 103). Examples include river, stream, lake, railway, and road.

The width of a road is not required to be depicted unless it is relevant to the definition of boundaries or boundary points.

Refer to Parcel Label – moving the Parcel Label in Plan Generation.

Refer to Capture of New Appellations – LandXML files and Manual Capture.

Non-primary parcels

While a depiction of each parcel in its entirety is not required on the survey diagram, the diagram must include:

  • a clear depiction of the spatial relationship between each non-primary parcel boundary and the boundary of the underlying parcel (r 83(e)(ii))
  • sufficient boundaries of the non-primary parcel in relation to the primary parcel to ensure the relationship is clear and unambiguous. The inclusion of part boundary distances is one acceptable way to show this.

The title diagram must include a clear depiction of the spatial relationship between each non-primary parcel and its entire underlying parcel (r 97).

This does not mean that the entire underlying parcel must be depicted. However, enough of the underlying parcel must be shown so that users of the diagram can readily identify where the non-primary parcel is in relation to whole of the underlying parcel.

Spatial depiction of a non-primary parcel

Figure 7: Spatial depiction of a non-primary parcel

Users of these diagrams may not be experts in interpreting plan data. Therefore, the title diagrams must be sufficient to enable these users to readily recognise how the non-primary parcel relates to its underlying parcel. Some easement-only or covenant-only CSDs lodged with LINZ have depicted the non-primary parcel in relation to a single underlying parcel boundary. While this locates the non-primary parcel in respect to an underlying parcel boundary, it does not depict the non-primary parcel’s relative location and extent in relation to the entire underlying parcel.

One way of complying with rule 97 is to depict the non-primary parcel and the whole underlying parcel in a separate smaller scale location diagram.

Parcels without survey information CSD

A 'Parcels without survey information’ (PWSI) CSD can include non-boundary vectors captured between two boundary points. These vectors are often required to ascertain and verify the relationship between a new non-primary parcel and its underlying primary parcel.

A non-boundary line in Landonline is defined as a line that is not forming a boundary in the CSD. Note that balance primary parcel boundary distances for easements coincident with part of a primary parcel boundary need to be captured as non-boundary lines. These balance primary parcel boundary distances are often required to be captured to meet the requirements of rule 89(g).

You can choose whether to use survey diagrams to depict non-boundary vectors in a PWSI CSD or alternatively, remove these diagrams and add the non-boundary vectors to the title diagrams as user added text.

Refer to Type of dataset above for more information about PWSI CSDs.

Depiction of estate boundaries

An estate boundary defines the extent of an interest in land. It is the record of title boundary, previously referred to as the certificate of title (CT) boundary. A Gazette boundary is also often an estate boundary.

An estate boundary will coincide with an existing primary parcel boundary.

A title diagram must depict an estate boundary where it passes through any new primary parcel, clearly annotated with the estate record references (r 97(7)).

Where there is more than one record of title associated with the land under survey, the estate boundary will normally coincide with:

  • A disappearing boundary of a primary parcel being extinguished. It will appear to cut through or be coincident with the new primary parcels.
  • A water boundary that has moved due to accretion. The estate boundary will appear to cut through a new 'dry' primary parcel.
Estate boundaries passing through surveyed land

Figure 8: Estate boundaries passing through surveyed land

If the estate boundaries coincide with new primary parcels, i.e. they do not pass through a parcel anywhere, there is no requirement to show the estate boundary. The estate record references may still be shown for clarity, however this is not a requirement under rule 97(7).

Annotations and ‘user added text’

Generally, annotations should only be shown on the survey and title diagrams when required by the CSR 2021 or by the Registrar-General of Land (RGL) for a land transfer CSD to deposit. The required parcel and boundary annotations for survey diagrams (r 87 and r 88) and title diagrams (r 103 and r 104) are listed in Tables 5 to 8 CSR 2021.

Some annotations can be automatically generated in the system generated survey and title diagrams if the required information is included in the CSD capture. For example, the legal and physical description of a water boundary can be captured, and this information will show automatically in the system generated survey and title diagrams.

System generated annotations can be moved if required to add clarity to the generated diagrams.

It is preferred that information is captured digitally where Landonline can generate the required depiction and annotation, as this information is digitally stored in Landonline and will be more useful to users of this data.

Some annotations can only be added manually to the system generated diagrams and this is accomplished by using the ‘user added text’ functionality in plan generation.

Annotations for vesting or other matters required by law

The notations, memorials, or other matters required by law to be shown in a title plan will be determined by the legislation applicable to the survey. Notations may be required for land being vested, dedicated, transferred, proclaimed, or amalgamated.

In the case of land that is to vest in the Crown or a territorial authority upon deposit of a subdivision CSD, a vesting notation must be shown on the title diagram (r 103). This notation must include the vesting purpose, the fact that the land is to vest, and in whom the land is to vest. Names should be recorded in full and should not include any abbreviations.

Examples of notations include:

  • Road to vest in Auckland Council
  • Recreation Reserve to vest in Wellington City Council
  • Local Purpose (Esplanade) Reserve to vest in Christchurch City Council.

Annotations for common marine and coastal area

The annotation ‘common marine and coastal area’ must be depicted on the title diagram clearly related to the relevant parcel where the land in the parcel:

  • will become part of the common marine and coastal area upon deposit of the CSD pursuant to s 237A of the Resource Management Act 1991
  • will become part of the common marine and coastal area pursuant to s 17 of the Marine and Coastal Area (Takutai Moana) Act 2011 upon an acquisition by the Crown or a local authority, or
  • is already part of the common marine and coastal area but not recorded as such in the cadastre (a residue parcel).

Refer to the Tidal boundaries guideline.

Optional ‘user added’ annotations

Information not required by the CSR 2021 can be included on the survey and title diagrams as user added text or annotations. However, adding non-essential information is discouraged unless it supports the interpretation or purpose of the CSD.

Care needs to be taken that user added annotations are correct, and that they do not contradict other information captured or depicted in the CSD.

You should use a supporting document (like memorandum/schedules), or a note in the survey report to capture notes included in earlier plans.

Do not add symbols as ‘user added text’, including symbols copied from the Windows Character Map. If you do, plan generation will insist that illegal characters are removed. The most common errors arise from use of the degree symbol (°) and the metre squared symbol (m2).


Total boundary distances are not required to be annotated on a title diagram however they can be added if clarification is needed. Likewise, total traverse line distances are not required.

Situations where clarification might be required:

  • If vectors have been calculated or deduced for the total traverse distance and measured in parts, 'Deduced' or 'ded' may be added as 'user added text', if required for clarification.
  • Showing balance title distances to the adjoining primary parcel boundary mark, where easements exist.

Do not show measured observations to adopted marks. If old marks are found at either end of a traverse line and there is to be an adopted mark on the line, capture the total measured bearing and distance as well as the partial adopted dimensions.

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