Our regulatory systems

Toitū Te Whenua is responsible for 4 regulatory systems: Property Rights, Property Information, Crown Land and Overseas Investment.

The functions range from system strategy to evaluation. Some functions are not performed by the lead regulatory agency, and they may not be performed in order the diagram suggests.

Diagram of regulatory system

We are responsible for 4 regulatory systems.

  • Property Rights is the state-guaranteed system of property rights, restrictions and responsibilities over most land and property in New Zealand. This system relies on the survey and geodetic sub-systems which establish property boundaries to which rights apply.
  • Property Information system provides a range of (non-private) information used for making property-related decisions. It includes information underpinned by legislation.
  • Crown Land system is made up of the:
    • Crown Pastoral Land system, which provides for Crown-owned land to be leased for the purpose of pastoral farming
    • Crown Estate Management system, which enables the Crown to acquire and dispose of land in a way that balances both the public interest and private property rights.
  • Overseas Investment System ensures any overseas investment in New Zealand’s sensitive assets (including land, significant business assets and fishing quota) benefits New Zealand.

Assessing how our regulatory systems perform

Assessments tell us how a regulatory system is performing, and recommend areas for improvement.

Following best practise, assessments focus on how the system functions as a whole, rather than the framework that supports it. They will not include policy reviews although assessment may inform them. 

Regulatory systemAssessment to be completed by
Crown Pastoral Land


Crown Estate Management


Property Rights


Property Information


Rating Valuation


Overseas InvestmentTBD